Xoloitzcuintli, commonly referred to as the Mexican hairless dog or simply Xolo, is a breed of dog that originated in Mexico. This unique breed is known for its hairless appearance, although some individuals may have a small amount of hair on their heads or tails. They are also known for their loyal, affectionate, and intelligent nature, making them popular pets among dog lovers.

The Xoloitzcuintli has a long history in Mexico and was believed to have been sacred to the Aztecs. They were often kept as pets by the wealthy and were also used in religious ceremonies. In fact, the name Xoloitzcuintli comes from the Aztec god Xolotl and the Nahuatl word for dog, "itzcuintli." The breed was nearly extinct in the mid-20th century, but dedicated breeders worked to revive the breed, and it has since gained popularity worldwide.

Xoloitzcuintlis come in three sizes: toy, miniature, and standard. They range in weight from 5 to 50 pounds, and their height can range from 10 to 23 inches. They have a sleek, muscular body with distinctive wrinkled foreheads and long, slender legs. They can be hairless or coated, with the coated variety having a short, smooth coat.

One of the most unique features of the Xoloitzcuintli is their lack of hair. This makes them a popular choice for people with allergies, as they do not shed much and produce less dander than other breeds. However, this also means that they are sensitive to extreme temperatures and may require extra care during both hot and cold weather.

Xoloitzcuintlis are known for their intelligence and trainability. They are quick learners and excel in obedience, agility, and other dog sports. They are also loyal and protective of their families, making them great watchdogs. However, socialization is important for Xolos, as they can be wary of strangers and may become aggressive if not properly socialized.

While they may be small, Xoloitzcuintlis have a big personality. They are affectionate and enjoy spending time with their families. They are also playful and energetic, making them great companions for children. However, their high energy levels may require daily exercise and playtime to keep them happy and healthy.

Things Need to Know about Xoloitzcuintli

Size and Weight

The Xoloitzcuintli comes in two types, hairless and coated, and three different sizes: toy, miniature, and standard. The toy version usually measures between 10 and 15 pounds. The miniature is 15 to 30 pounds. Finally, the standard is 30 to 55 pounds. The smaller dogs tend to have thinner skins, but all three types can vary in thickness.

Common Health Issues

Since the Xolo was allowed to develop freely with little artificial selection by humans, it has few inheritable health problems that plague other breeds. This also means it has an excellent life span of 13 to 18 years. The breed does suffer from dry skin, some drug sensitivities, cancer, and joint issues. Owners should also look out for kennel cough, meaning an infectious disease that produces a very harsh coughing sound.

Any new puppy should have a thorough medical examination for common developmental disorders of the joints, eyes, and heart. Ideally, this service should be provided by your breeder before the point of purchase. You should also schedule regular appointments at the vet to catch any early signs of health problems. In summation, these are the most common health problems with the Xolo:

  • Dry skin 
  • Allergies 
  • Cancer 
  • Joint issues


The Xoloitzcuintli has an all-around friendly personality. It’s fairly playful and attentive, affectionate with the family, highly intelligent, and sensitive in nature. This breed does tend to bond very strongly with a single person, but they will accept all members of the family as a friend, including other dogs.

Because of their wariness of strangers and protective nature, they make good watchdogs (though not necessarily good guard dogs). They do need quite a lot of mental stimulation every day in the form of playtime, brain exercises, and other activities. If they do not receive enough attention or activities, then they might keep their minds occupied by engaging in unwanted or destructive behavior.


While some prior dog ownership experience is recommended, the Xoloitzcuintli is a good choice for many different types of owners. This breed can adapt to a wide range of different living situations and daily schedules, and owners won’t need to spend too much time on grooming and care.

Best Dog Food

Remember to take your Xolo’s size and activity level into account for proper food portioning. Additionally, Xolos’ skin needs a little extra TLC. So look for dog food that helps prevent dry skin and contains ample, natural nutrition to keep cancers and joint issues at bay.

Science Diet Dry Dog Food Adult Sensitive Stomach and Skin, Small Bites Chicken Recipe could be a great choice to feed your Xoloitzcuintli.

This nutritious food contains natural ingredients with skin-nourishing Omega-6 fatty acids and Vitamin E. You can find Hill’s for Sensitive Stomach and Skin on Chewy and Amazon. The size of your dog will largely dictate how much food it needs. A toy dog may need as little as half a cup of high-quality dog food per day, while the standard-sized Xoloitzcuintli may need more than 2 cups per day. Highly active and younger dogs will also need more food than inactive dogs.


Maintenance and Grooming

Grooming the Xoloitzcuintli should be a relatively easy task. The coated variety requires minimum brushing, probably no more than once a week. The hairless variety will need to be wiped down with a damp cloth and bathed with a light moisturizer, but bathing too often may strip the natural oils from the skin. Owners should also check their ears regularly for signs of infection and use a cotton swab while cleaning.

The nails should be trimmed about twice a month to prevent them from becoming uncomfortable and annoying to deal with. Tooth brushing nearly every day is also necessary to maintain proper dental hygiene. When venturing outside into the sun, hairless dogs will always need sunscreen (or at least thick clothing) to protect their vulnerable skin.


The Xoloitzcuintli is a highly trainable breed, eager to learn and good at following instructions. But these are sensitive dogs that benefit from positive reinforcement methods and respond very poorly to harsh words and actions. Owners will need to set boundaries early and remain consistent throughout the entire process.


The Xoloitzcuintli needs a moderate amount of exercise, around 45 minutes every day. It should be satisfied with long walks around the block, fetching, and vigorous playtime. It might be a good idea to keep the dog on a leash outdoors to prevent it from chasing after smaller animals.


Xoloitzcuintli puppies are a real handful to care for. They are considered to be bundles of energy even after the point of maturation and probably won’t settle down until around two years old. Fortunately, the adults are actually known for being quite calm and well-behaved. Until that point, they will benefit immensely from an early direction in the form of training and socialization.

You should expect to spend the first several months with your dog teaching it everything from basic household etiquette to more advanced commands. The dog should be introduced to new situations and settings as often and early as possible. Crate training can help with housebreaking and early behavior issues, but it’s not strictly necessary.


The Xoloitzcuintli is a popular breed in its native Mexico and has begun to receive more attention internationally. The first-ever Xolo recognized in the United States was a dog named Mee Too in 1887. Chinito Junior, owned by Valetska Radtke of New York City, was the first and only Xolo to be recognized as AKC champion in 1940. More recently, the Xolo was featured in the 2017 Pixar film Coco. It is also the mascot of the soccer team Club Tijuana. Many public figures, including prominent 20th-century Mexican painter Diego Rivera, have owned this breed as well.

Last Words

In conclusion, the Xoloitzcuintli is a unique and fascinating dog breed with a rich history in Mexico. They are loyal, intelligent, and affectionate, making them great pets for those who appreciate their unique characteristics. While they may require some extra care due to their hairless nature, they make up for it with their loving and playful personalities.

Anas Ibn Yousuf

Hi Everyone, I am Anas from Kerala, One of the owners of PDFuploads. I have 8 Years of experience in Blogging.

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